transparentlivesTransparent Lives: Surveillance in Canada (Athabasca University Press, 2014, co-edited with Kevin Haggerty, David Lyon and Valerie Steeves). This book is the culmination of the New Transparency Project, and is authored by a multi-disciplinary team of surveillance experts across Canada. Transparent Lives explains why and how surveillance is expanding ”mostly unchecked” into every facet of our lives. Through an investigation of the major ways in which both government and private sector organizations gather, monitor, analyze, and share information about ordinary citizens, the volume identifies nine key trends in the processing of personal data that together raise urgent questions of privacy and social justice. Examples are drawn almost exclusively from Canadian experiences, and we have tried to write the book in an accessible style, free from academic and technical jargon. It is deliberately aimed at a broader audience, including policymakers, journalists, students, advocacy groups and the general reading public. It is accompanied by a website: And it is published in both English and French. A free PDF version of this book can be downloaded from the Athabasca Press website.

Security Games coverSecurity Games: Surveillance and Control at Mega-Events (London: Routledge, 2011, co-edited with Kevin Haggerty). Mega-events have become opportunities for experiments in monitoring people and place, and important moments in the development and dispersal of surveillance. Through the mega-event, we can observe the complex ways that unique combinations of technology, institutional motivations, and public-private security arrangements produce security practices. In this process, the surveillance infrastructure established for one mega-event expands and becomes the standard for the future. Local political, administrative, cultural and economic factors also shape the experiences on the ground and the more general perceptions and legacies. Security Games consequently have both international and domestic legacies. In this edited volume, Kevin Haggerty and I present chapters on the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the 2006 World Cup in Germany, the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, the 2008 European Championships in Switzerland, the Winter Olympics in Vancouver/Whistler 2010, the future 2012 Olympic Games in London and the sequence of mega-events which have occurred in Japan since the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. The collection originates in a research workshop held in Vancouver on November 20-21st, 2009, just two months before the Winter Olympics.

In The Privacy Advocates, I analyze the people and groups around the world who have risen to challenge the most intrusive surveillance practices by both government and corporations. So I examine privacy and surveillance not from a legal or technical perspective but from the viewpoint of this network of self-identified privacy advocates who have emerged from civil society, without official sanction and with few resources, and who have found creative ways to affect policy and practice. Drawing on extensive interviews with key informants in the movement, I examine how they frame the issue, how they organize, who they are, and what strategies they use. I also present a series of case studies that illustrate how effective their efforts have been, including conflicts over key-escrow encryption, online advertising through third-party cookies that track users across different Web sites, and online authentication mechanisms. Finally, I consider how this loose and open network could develop into a more cohesive international social movement. The Privacy Advocates was issued in a paperback version in 2010. A PDF copy of the first chapter is available here.

Playing the ID Card_XThis volume, co-edited with David Lyon, originated in an academic workshop held at Queens University in 2007. Both long-term trends towards e-Government and more recent responses to 9/11 have prompted the quest for more stable identity systems in many countries. Commercial pressures combine with security rationales to catalyze ID development, aimed at accuracy, efficiency and speed. New ID systems also depend on computerized national registries. In Playing the Identity Card we demonstrate not only the benefits of how the state can “see” citizens better using these instruments but also the challenges this raises for civil liberties and human rights. ID cards are part of a broader trend towards intensified surveillance and as such are understood very differently according to the history and cultures of the countries concerned. The authors write case studies emphasizing the colonial legacies in South Africa, China, Hong Kong, Japan, India, and the UAE. Others analyze systems where there has been considerable opposition to ID card development in the UK, Australia, France, the US and Canada.  The broad comparative and international approach of this volume allows fascinating comparisons of how the cards fall in different national contexts. A PDF copy of the first chapter is available here.

This book (co-authored with Charles Raab) was published in 2003, with a second edition from MIT Press in 2006. The protection of our personal information in a borderless world means that privacy-related policies are inextricably interdependent. In this book, we analyze the broad range of privacy policy instruments available to contemporary advanced industrial states, from government regulations and transnational regimes to self-regulation and privacy-enhancing technologies. We also evaluate the interrelationships of these policy instruments and their position in a global framework of regulation by the policy community of state and non-state actors, all engaged in the governance of privacy.  We consider two possible dynamics of privacy regulation — ”a race to the bottom,” with competitive deregulation by countries eager to attract global investment in information technology, versus “a race to the top,” with the progressive establishment of global privacy standards. Finally, we consider whether all of this policy activity at international, national, and corporate levels necessarily means higher levels of privacy protection.

This was an edited volume produced at the end of the century and based on a conference held in Victoria under the auspices of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of British Columbia. We note in this book a significant shift in emphasis from legal measures to protect privacy to a range of instruments of an international, technological and self-regulatory character. To explain the operation of these instruments, authors from various sectors involved in the politics of privacy were selected to contribute to both the conference and book. The authors analyze the various new tools in the privacy toolkit and evaluate their effectiveness as the Internet becomes more prevalent, and the computing environment more globalized and networked.

In my first book, based on my doctoral dissertation, I was interested in the development of the first generation of privacy and data protection laws, developed in the 1970s and 1980s, and how they were influenced by the interplay of international and domestic forces. Conceived as a study of comparative public policy, the work is built around the concepts of convergence and divergence. I analyze how broad transnational forces motivating a convergence of public policy are mediated by domestic institutional and cultural constraints in the four countries under consideration, the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany and Sweden. In 1993, this book won the Charles H. Levine Memorial Book Prize from the Structure and Organization of Government Section of the International Political Science Association. It was later translated into Japanese.